For many years, public water systems have added Chloramines to drinking water as a primary or
secondary disinfectant. This is because of concerns of formation of disinfection by-product as
the result of using free chlorine. The City of Shawnee is conducting a pilot study to evaluate
the viability of using Chloramines as post oxidant. Please accept this notice as your 30 days
notification (Pursuant to OAC 252:631-3-3(d)(1)), that Chlorine Dioxide/ Chloramines disinfectants
will be used in the City of Shawnee water system and that these disinfectants could affect certain
Hemodialysis: A potentially serious problem arises when tap water containing chloramines is
used in hemodialysis (artificial kidney machines). Chloramines pass through the dialysis membrane
and their toxicity to patients under dialysis conditions is undisputed (Eaton ct al. 1973).
Chlorine Dioxide and its by-products may have similar effects. Operators of dialysis centers
know that tap water must be treated before use in dialysis.
The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has proposed a limit of 0.1 mg/L
for chloramines in hemodialysis water. It is imperative that dialysis centers and users of home
dialysis systems to be aware that chlorine dioxide/chloramines will be used in the City of Shawnee
water system and that treatment is necessary to remove these parameters from hemodialysis water.
The types of controls available to users include carbon filtration and reverse osmosis or chemical
reduction. Other substances in tap water besides chloramines are also known to interfere with
dialysis. These include copper, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate zinc and aluminum.
Fish tanks and fisheries: The toxicity of chloramines to fish is well-known. Most breeders and
owners of tropical or other aquarium fish know that tap water should not be used in aquaria without
proper treatment and aging. Yet, a number of cases of aquarium fish being killed by chloramines in
tap water have been reported, particularly when conversion between disinfection methods has occurred
at the treatment plant. Since chloramines are more persistent than free chlorine (which is also
toxic to fish), treatment and aging of water to be used in aquaria is more critical when chloramines
are present. Suggested action for fish fanciers, breeders, or pet shop owners includes the use of
activated carbon filters. Care needs to be taken to replace filter cartridges before breakthrough